## Understanding Compact Stars in $f(R,L_m,T)$ Gravity: Implications and Future Directions

arXiv:2402.13360v1 Announce Type: new

Abstract: This study explores the behavior of compact stars within the framework of $f(R,L_m,T)$ gravity, focusing on the functional form $f(R,L_m,T) = R + alpha TL_m$. The modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations are derived and numerically solved for several values of the free parameter $alpha$ by considering both quark and hadronic matter — described by realistic equations of state (EoSs). Furthermore, the stellar structure equations are adapted for two different choices of the matter Lagrangian density (namely, $L_m= p$ and $L_m= -rho$), laying the groundwork for our numerical analysis. As expected, we recover the traditional TOV equations in General Relativity (GR) when $alpha rightarrow 0$. Remarkably, we found that the two choices for $L_m$ have appreciably different effects on the mass-radius diagrams. Results showcase the impact of $alpha$ on compact star properties, while final remarks summarize key findings and discuss implications, including compatibility with observational data from NGC 6397’s neutron star. Overall, this research enhances comprehension of $f(R,L_m,T)$ gravity’s effects on compact star internal structures, offering insights for future investigations.

This study examines the behavior of compact stars within the framework of $f(R,L_m,T)$ gravity, focusing specifically on the functional form $f(R,L_m,T) = R + alpha TL_m$. The modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations are derived and numerically solved for different values of the parameter $alpha$, considering both quark and hadronic matter with realistic equations of state. The stellar structure equations are adapted for two choices of the matter Lagrangian density, laying the foundation for the numerical analysis.

When $alpha$ approaches zero, the traditional TOV equations in General Relativity (GR) are recovered. However, it was discovered that the two choices for $L_m$ have significantly different effects on the mass-radius diagrams. This highlights the impact of $alpha$ on the properties of compact stars. The study concludes by summarizing the key findings and discussing their implications, including their compatibility with observational data from NGC 6397’s neutron star.

Overall, this research enhances our understanding of the effects of $f(R,L_m,T)$ gravity on the internal structures of compact stars. It provides insights that can contribute to future investigations in this field.

## Roadmap for Future Investigations

To further explore the implications and potential applications of $f(R,L_m,T)$ gravity on compact stars, several avenues of research can be pursued:

### 1. Expansion to Other Functional Forms

While this study focuses on the specific functional form $f(R,L_m,T) = R + alpha TL_m$, there is potential for investigation into other functional forms. Different choices for $f(R,L_m,T)$ may yield interesting and diverse results, expanding our understanding of compact star behavior.

### 2. Exploration of Different Equations of State

Currently, the study considers realistic equations of state for both quark and hadronic matter. However, there is room for exploration of other equations of state. By incorporating different equations of state, we can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the behavior of compact stars under $f(R,L_m,T)$ gravity.

### 3. Inclusion of Additional Parameters

Expanding the analysis to include additional parameters beyond $alpha$ can provide a more nuanced understanding of the effects of $f(R,L_m,T)$ gravity on compact stars. By investigating how different parameters interact with each other and impact the properties of compact stars, we can uncover new insights into the behavior of these celestial objects.

### 4. Comparison with Observational Data

While this study discusses the compatibility of the findings with observational data from NGC 6397’s neutron star, it is important to expand this comparison to a wider range of observational data. By comparing the theoretical predictions with a larger dataset, we can validate the conclusions drawn and identify any discrepancies or areas for further investigation.

## Challenges and Opportunities

**Potential Challenges:**

- Obtaining accurate and comprehensive observational data on compact stars for comparison with theoretical predictions can be challenging due to their extreme conditions and limited visibility.
- Numerically solving the modified TOV equations for various parameter values and choices of matter Lagrangian density may require significant computational resources and optimization.
- Exploring different functional forms and equations of state can lead to complex analyses, requiring careful interpretation and validation of results.

**Potential Opportunities:**

- The advancements in observational techniques and instruments provide opportunities for obtaining more precise data on compact stars, enabling more accurate validation of theoretical models.
- Ongoing advancements in computational power and numerical techniques allow for more efficient and faster solution of the modified TOV equations, facilitating the exploration of a broader parameter space.
- The diverse range of functional forms and equations of state available for investigation provides ample opportunities for uncovering novel insights into the behavior and properties of compact stars.

By addressing these challenges and capitalizing on the opportunities, future investigations into the effects of $f(R,L_m,T)$ gravity on compact star internal structures can continue to push the boundaries of our understanding and pave the way for further advancements in the field.