The Potential Future Trends in Enhanced Innate Immunity after BCG Vaccine

In recent years, the field of immunology has witnessed significant advancements, particularly in understanding the intricate mechanisms of the innate immune system. A study published by Nature highlights a key finding that a dormant immune system before receiving the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is associated with a greater innate immune response afterward. This revelation opens up a plethora of potential future trends that could revolutionize the use of BCG vaccine and other immunotherapies. In this article, we will analyze these key points, explore potential future trends, and provide unique predictions and recommendations for the industry.

Understanding the Link Between Dormant Immune System and Enhanced Innate Immune Response

The study cited in this article emphasizes the importance of the pre-existing immune state before administering the BCG vaccine. It suggests that individuals with a dormant immune system may experience a more robust innate immune response after receiving the vaccine. This finding has significant implications for future trends related to immunotherapies and vaccination strategies.

One potential future trend is the development of personalized medicine approaches, wherein the immune state of an individual is evaluated before recommending specific vaccines or immunotherapies. This approach would allow healthcare professionals to tailor interventions based on an individual’s immune profile, optimizing treatment outcomes and reducing adverse effects.

Predictions: Unlocking the Potential of Enhanced Innate Immunity

The discovery of the link between dormant immune system and enhanced innate immune response paves the way for several predictions in the field of immunology:

  1. Development of novel adjuvants: Adjuvants are substances that enhance the immune response to vaccines. With the knowledge that a dormant immune system can benefit from the BCG vaccine, future research may focus on developing adjuvants that specifically target dormant immune cells, further augmenting the innate immune response.
  2. Improved effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies: Cancer immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, might benefit from combining them with BCG vaccination in individuals with a dormant immune system. This combination therapy could potentially enhance the activation of innate immune cells against cancer cells.
  3. Enhanced response to infectious diseases: The innate immune system plays a critical role in defending against various infectious diseases. By understanding the factors that influence the innate immune response, such as pre-existing immune state, researchers and healthcare professionals can develop targeted interventions to improve the body’s ability to fight off infections.

Recommendations for the Industry

Based on the potential future trends identified above, we recommend the following actions for the industry:

  • Investment in research: The industry should support further research to unravel the complex mechanisms underlying the link between dormant immune system and enhanced innate immunity after BCG vaccination. This will provide a solid foundation for developing innovative strategies and treatments.
  • Collaboration between academia and industry: Collaboration between academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies is crucial to translate research findings into practical applications. The industry can benefit from academic expertise while academia can gain insights into real-world implementation and commercialization.
  • Regulatory considerations: Regulatory bodies should take into account personalized medicine approaches and consider updating guidelines for vaccine and immunotherapy recommendations based on an individual’s immune state. This will support the development of tailored interventions and optimize treatment outcomes.


The discovery of the link between dormant immune system and an enhanced innate immune response after BCG vaccination opens up exciting possibilities for future trends in immunotherapy and vaccine development. Personalized medicine approaches, the development of novel adjuvants, and the integration of BCG vaccination with other immunotherapies might revolutionize the field. However, further research, collaboration, and regulatory considerations are essential to harness the full potential of these trends and ultimately improve healthcare outcomes.

Nature, Published online: 09 January 2024; doi:10.1038/d41586-024-00005-y