Robots can be very useful to automate tasks and reduce the human effort
required. But for the robot to know, how to perform tasks, we need to give it a
clear set of steps to follow. It is nearly impossible to provide a robot with
instructions for every possible task. Therefore we have a Universal Functional
object-oriented network (FOON) which was created and expanded and has a lot of
existing recipe information [1]. But certain tasks are complicated for robots
to perform and similarly, some tasks are complicated for humans to perform.
Therefore weights have been added to functional units to represent the chance
of successful execution of the motion by the robot [2]. Given a set of kitchen
items and a goal node, using Universal FOON, a robot must be able to determine
if the required items are present in the kitchen, and if yes, get the steps to
convert the required kitchen items to the goal node. Now through this paper, we
use two algorithms (IDS and GBFS) to retrieve a task tree (if possible) for a
goal node and a given set of kitchen items. The following would be the
different parts of the paper: Section II FOON creation, where we will discuss
the different terminologies related to FOON and visualization of FOON. In
Section III Methodology we discuss the IDS and GBFS search algorithms and the
two different heuristics implemented and used in GBFS. In Section IV
Experiment/Discussion, we compare the performance of different algorithms. In
the final section V, we specify the references of the papers that have been

Robots have become increasingly useful in automating tasks and reducing human effort. However, to effectively carry out tasks, robots need clear instructions to follow. While it is impossible to provide instructions for every possible task, the Universal Functional object-oriented network (FOON) has been developed to address this challenge. FOON serves as a repository of existing recipe information, providing a basis for robots to perform various tasks.

Weighted functional units within FOON represent the likelihood of successful task execution by the robot. This takes into account the complexity of certain tasks, which may be challenging for both robots and humans. By incorporating these weights, FOON enables robots to determine whether the required kitchen items are present and provides step-by-step instructions to transform those items into the desired goal node.

The paper outlines two algorithms, namely Iterative Deepening Search (IDS) and Greedy Best-First Search (GBFS), to retrieve a task tree for a given goal node and set of kitchen items using Universal FOON. The IDS algorithm aims to systematically explore all possible paths to find the optimal solution, while GBFS utilizes heuristics to efficiently find a solution.

In Section II of the paper, the creation of FOON is discussed, along with an exploration of relevant terminologies and visualization techniques. Section III delves into the methodology, detailing the IDS and GBFS algorithms as well as the specific heuristics employed in GBFS. Section IV presents the experimental results and subsequent discussion, comparing the performance of different algorithms.

The paper emphasizes the multi-disciplinary nature of the concepts presented, integrating knowledge from robotics, artificial intelligence, and data science. It showcases how these fields converge in creating a comprehensive framework for automating complex tasks in the kitchen. Through the analysis of algorithm performance, the paper contributes valuable insights into the effectiveness of different search approaches and heuristics for task retrieval in FOON.

In conclusion (Section V), the paper provides a comprehensive list of references for further exploration of related research papers. Overall, this work deepens our understanding of robotic automation in the context of kitchen tasks, highlighting the importance of developing robust algorithms and frameworks.

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