Brane world models have shown to be promising to understand the late cosmic
acceleration, in particular because such acceleration can be naturally derived,
mimicking the dark energy behaviour just with a five dimensional geometry. In
this paper we present a strong lensing joint analysis using a compilation of
early-type galaxies acting as a lenses, united with the power of the well
studied strong lensing galaxy cluster Abell,1689. We use the strong lensing
constraints to investigate a brane model with variable brane tension as a
function of the redshift. In our joint analysis we found a value $n =
7.8^{+0.9}_{-0.5}$, for the exponent related to the brane tension, showing that
$n$ deviates from a Cosmological Constant (CC) scenario (n=6). We obtain a
value for the deceleration parameter, $q(z)$ today, $q(0)=-1.2^{+0.6}_{-0.8}$,
and a transition redshift, $z_t=0.60pm0.06$ (when the Universe change from an
decelerated phase to an accelerated one). These results are in contrast with
previous work that favors CC scenario, nevertheless our lensing analysis is in
agreement with a formerly reported conclusion suggesting that the variable
brane tension model is able to source a late cosmic acceleration without an
extra fluid as in the standard one.

Examining the Conclusions of Brane World Models for Late Cosmic Acceleration

Brane world models have emerged as a promising avenue for understanding the phenomenon of late cosmic acceleration. These models offer an intriguing approach by utilizing a five-dimensional geometry that naturally mimics the behavior of dark energy. In this paper, we present a strong lensing joint analysis that combines the power of well-studied strong lensing galaxy cluster Abell,1689 with a compilation of early-type galaxies acting as lenses. Our goal is to investigate a brane model with variable brane tension as a function of redshift and derive valuable insights from the strong lensing constraints.

Key Findings:

  • We have obtained a value of $n = 7.8^{+0.9}_{-0.5}$ for the exponent related to the brane tension in our joint analysis. This deviation from the Cosmological Constant (CC) scenario (where n=6) suggests that the brane model with variable brane tension offers a unique perspective on late cosmic acceleration.
  • The deceleration parameter, $q(z)$, evaluated at present day shows a value of $q(0)=-1.2^{+0.6}_{-0.8}$. This indicates an accelerated phase for the universe and further solidifies the viability of the brane model in predicting late cosmic acceleration.
  • We have determined a transition redshift, $z_t=0.60pm0.06$, which signifies the point at which the universe transitions from a decelerated phase to an accelerated one. This result strengthens our understanding of the dynamics involved in late cosmic acceleration.

These findings challenge previous work favoring the Cosmological Constant scenario and provide further support for the variable brane tension model as a viable explanation for late cosmic acceleration. Our strong lensing joint analysis showcases the potential of this model in deriving meaningful insights without the need for an extra fluid, as in the standard approach.

Roadmap for the Future:

  1. Further Observations and Data: To strengthen the conclusions drawn from our analysis, future efforts should focus on obtaining additional observations and data of early-type galaxies and strong lensing galaxy clusters. This will allow for a more comprehensive and robust analysis that can provide even deeper insights into the behavior of late cosmic acceleration.
  2. Refining the Brane Model: While the variable brane tension model has shown promise in this analysis, future research should focus on refining and expanding upon this model. Exploring additional variations and parameters that may contribute to late cosmic acceleration can help build a more complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms.
  3. Comparative Analysis: It would be valuable to conduct comparative analyses between the variable brane tension model and other theoretical frameworks for late cosmic acceleration. This can help identify the unique strengths and weaknesses of each model and potentially lead to the development of hybrid models that combine the best aspects of multiple approaches.
  4. Experimental Testing: As our understanding of the brane model improves, efforts should be made to test its predictions through experimental observations. This could involve studying gravitational lensing, cosmic microwave background, or other astrophysical phenomena that can provide empirical evidence supporting or challenging the predictions of the brane model.

In conclusion, our strong lensing joint analysis utilizing brane world models has provided valuable insights into the nature of late cosmic acceleration. The results challenge previous assumptions, offer new perspectives, and highlight the potential of the variable brane tension model. By addressing the challenges and pursuing the opportunities outlined above, future research can unlock further mysteries surrounding late cosmic acceleration and contribute to our broader understanding of the universe.

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