arXiv:2403.13019v1 Announce Type: new

Abstract: A novel theory was proposed earlier to model systems with thermal gradients, based on the postulate that the spatial and temporal variation in temperature can be recast as a variation in the metric. Combining the variation in the metric due to the thermal variations and gravity, leads to the concept of thermal gravity in a 5-D space-time-temperature setting. When the 5-D Einstein field equations are projected to a 4-D space, they result in additional terms in the field equations. This may lead to unique phenomena such as the spontaneous symmetry breaking of scalar particles in the presence of a strong gravitational field. This theory, originally conceived in a quantum mechanical framework, is now adapted to explain the galaxy rotation curves. A galaxy is not in a state of thermal equilibrium. A parameter called the “degree of thermalization” is introduced to model partially thermalized systems. The generalization of thermal gravity to partially thermalized systems, leads to the theory of many-body gravity. The theory of many-body gravity is now shown to be able to explain the rotation curves of the Milky Way and the M31 (Andromeda) galaxies, to a fair extent. The radial acceleration relation (RAR) for 21 galaxies, with variations spanning three orders of magnitude in galactic mass, is also reproduced.

## Understanding Thermal Gravity and Many-Body Gravity: Explaining Galaxy Rotation Curves

A new theory has been proposed to model systems with thermal gradients. This theory suggests that the spatial and temporal variation in temperature can be recast as a variation in the metric, leading to the concept of thermal gravity in a 5-dimensional space-time-temperature setting. Combining thermal variations and gravity in the metric results in additional terms in the field equations when projected to a 4-dimensional space.

One potential outcome of this theory is the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking of scalar particles in the presence of a strong gravitational field. Originally conceived in a quantum mechanical framework, this theory has now been adapted to explain the rotation curves of galaxies.

### The Concept of Thermalization

A galaxy is not in a state of thermal equilibrium, so a parameter called the “degree of thermalization” is introduced to model partially thermalized systems. By generalizing thermal gravity to partially thermalized systems, the theory of many-body gravity is derived.

### Explaining Galaxy Rotation Curves

The theory of many-body gravity is now shown to be able to explain the rotation curves of the Milky Way and the M31 (Andromeda) galaxies to a fair extent. This provides a new perspective on the dynamics of galactic rotation and challenges existing models.

### Reproducing the Radial Acceleration Relation (RAR)

Additionally, the theory of many-body gravity successfully reproduces the radial acceleration relation (RAR) for 21 galaxies, spanning a wide range of galactic mass variations. This strengthens the credibility of the theory and highlights its potential to explain various astronomical observations.

## Roadmap for the Future

While the novel theory of thermal gravity and many-body gravity shows promising results in explaining galaxy rotation curves and the radial acceleration relation, there are several challenges and opportunities on the horizon:

**Further observational validation:**Continued observations and analysis of galaxy rotation curves, as well as other astronomical phenomena, will be crucial in validating and refining the theory. Gathering data from a wider range of galaxies and comparing with predictions could provide further insights.**Incorporating other physical phenomena:**Exploring how the theory of many-body gravity can be extended to incorporate other physical phenomena, such as dark matter, dark energy, and black holes, will be important in developing a more comprehensive framework.**Experimental verification:**Finding ways to test the predictions of the theory in controlled laboratory experiments or with space-based missions could provide additional evidence and support for its validity.**Integration with existing models:**Understanding how the theory of many-body gravity fits within the current framework of gravitational theories, such as general relativity, and identifying possible connections and overlaps will be essential.

In conclusion, the theory of thermal gravity and many-body gravity offers a new perspective on explaining galaxy rotation curves and has the potential to advance our understanding of gravitational phenomena. Further exploration, validation, and integration with existing models will be crucial in refining and solidifying this theory.

*Disclaimer: This summary is based on the provided text and does not take into account any potential additional context or updates.*